What is Nosebleed?

Nosebleeds a re very common. The nose contains many tiny blood vessels that bleed easily. Air moving through the nose can dry and irritate the membranes lining the inside of the nose, forming crusts. These crusts bleed when irritated by rubbing, picking, or blowing the nose.

The lining of the nose is more likely to become dry and irritated from low humidity, allergies , colds , or sinusitis . Thus, nosebleeds occur more frequently in the winter when viruses are common and heated indoor air dries out the nostrils. A foreign object in the nose or direct impact to the nose can also cause a nosebleed.

If you have a deviated septum, you may be prone to frequent nosebleeds.

Most nosebleeds occur on the tip of the septum, the cartilage that separates the nasal chambers. The septum contains many fragile, easily damaged blood vessels. This form of nosebleed is usually easy to stop. Less commonly, nosebleeds may occur higher on the septum or deeper in the nose. These higher or deeper nosebleeds may be harder to control.

Occasionally, nosebleeds may indicate other disorders such as bleeding disorders or high blood pressure.

What are the causes of Nosebleed?

Most nosebleeds (epistaxis) are mere nuisances. But some are quite frightening, and a few are even life threatening.

Additional Causes Of Nosebleeds:

  • Allergies, infections, or dryness that cause itching and lead to picking of the nose.
  • Vigorous nose blowing that ruptures superficial blood vessels in the elderly and in the young.
  • Clotting disorders that run in families or are due to medications.
  • Fractures of the nose or of the base of the skull that can cause bleeding and should be regarded seriously when the bleeding follows a head injury.
  • Rarely, tumors (both malignant and nonmalignant) have to be considered, particularly in the older patient or in smokers.
  • High Blood Pressure.

What are the symptoms of Nosebleed?

Nosebleeds produce varying amount of bleeding from the nasal cavity. Blood may pass into the throat. If there is severe blood loss, anemia will develop with shortness of breath, lightheadedness, rapid heart rate and pallor. If the blood is aspirated into the lungs, cough may develop.

In substantial amounts of blood are swallowed, there may be vomiting of blood and black, tarry stools. Recurrent nosebleeds can sometimes be an indication of some type of problem with the coagulation system.

Some more symptoms of nose bleeding are-

Elevated blood pressure.

Liver disease.

Generalized infection.

Nose bleeds.

What treatment can be done for Nosebleed?

Initial first aid for a bleeding nose is simple:

– Apply pressure to stop bleeding(to the front soft part of the nose,not the bony top).

– Apply cold pack.

– Avoid restarting bleeding.

If possible, have the sufferer stand, or sit and lean forward, to stop blood flowing back down the throat. Aim to have the head above the level of the heart.

If blood continues to flow down the throat it may indicate a posterior nosebleed and medical help should be sought.

To prevent the nose from bleeding again soon after stopping: do not pick or blow the nose (gentle sniffing is possible); do not strain or bend down or lift anything heavy; and keep the head higher than the heart.